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kern/51632: Fix a race condition of low priority xcall

>Number:         51632
>Category:       kern
>Synopsis:       Fix a race condition of low priority xcall
>Confidential:   no
>Severity:       critical
>Priority:       high
>Responsible:    kern-bug-people
>State:          open
>Class:          sw-bug
>Submitter-Id:   net
>Arrival-Date:   Thu Nov 17 01:50:00 +0000 2016
>Originator:     Ryota Ozaki
>Release:        6, 7, -current (since xcall appeared)
NetBSD kvm 7.99.42 NetBSD 7.99.42 (KVM) #456: Wed Nov 16 17:57:19 JST 2016  ozaki-r@rangeley:(hidden) amd64
xc_lowpri and xc_thread are racy and xc_wait may return during/before
executing all xcall callbacks, resulting in a kernel panic at worst.

xc_lowpri serializes multiple jobs by a mutex and a cv. If all xcall callbacks
are done, xc_wait returns and also xc_lowpri accepts a next job.

The problem is that a counter that counts the number of finished xcall
callbacks is incremented *before* actually executing a xcall callback
(see xc_tailp++ in xc_thread). So xc_lowpri accepts a next job before
all xcall callbacks complete and a next job begins to run its xcall callbacks.

Even worse the counter is global and shared between jobs, so if a xcall
callback of the next job completes, the shared counter is incremented,
which confuses wc_wait of the previous job as all xcall callbacks of the
previous job are done and wc_wait of the previous job returns
during/before executing its xcall callbacks.

In psref_target_destroy case, arguments of a xcall callback are local
variables of a function that calls xc_broadcast and xc_wait. So early
return of xc_wait (auto-)deallocates the variables, which leads dangling
dereferences by a xcall callback resulting in say a kernel panic.

One example of kernel panicks is:
  panic: kernel diagnostic assertion "(target->prt_class == class)" failed: file "(hidden)/sys/kern/subr_psref.c", line 485 mismatched psref target class: 0x0 (ref) != 0x2 (expected)

I encountered the issue with a modified kernel that introduces
psref_target_destroy, which uses low priority xcall, for rtentries. It allows
parallel executions of psref_target_destroy for a rtentry and an ifaddr.

Nonetheless the issue theoretically happens if users of low priority xcall
for any targets run in parallel.

I can reproduce the issue by letting destructions of a rtentry and a
ifaddr occur in parallel, for example by the following steps:
- boot a kernel (modified) with NET_MPSAFE enabled
- setup IP forwarding
- send traffic over the forwarding path
- repeat assigning and deassigning IP addresses on the interfaces
- wait for several minutes

There are two counters that count the number of finished xcall callbacks for low priority xcall
for historical reasons (I guess): xc_tailp and xc_low_pri.xc_donep. xc_low_pri.xc_donep is
incremented correctly while xc_tailp is incremented wrongly, i.e., before executing a xcall

We can fix the issue by dropping xc_tailp and using only xc_low_pri.xc_donep.

diff --git a/sys/kern/subr_xcall.c b/sys/kern/subr_xcall.c
index fb4630f..77996d6 100644
--- a/sys/kern/subr_xcall.c
+++ b/sys/kern/subr_xcall.c
@@ -105,7 +105,6 @@ typedef struct {
 /* Low priority xcall structures. */
 static xc_state_t	xc_low_pri	__cacheline_aligned;
-static uint64_t		xc_tailp	__cacheline_aligned;
 /* High priority xcall structures. */
 static xc_state_t	xc_high_pri	__cacheline_aligned;
@@ -134,7 +133,6 @@ xc_init(void)
 	memset(xclo, 0, sizeof(xc_state_t));
 	mutex_init(&xclo->xc_lock, MUTEX_DEFAULT, IPL_NONE);
 	cv_init(&xclo->xc_busy, "xclocv");
-	xc_tailp = 0;
 	memset(xchi, 0, sizeof(xc_state_t));
 	mutex_init(&xchi->xc_lock, MUTEX_DEFAULT, IPL_SOFTSERIAL);
@@ -256,7 +254,7 @@ xc_lowpri(xcfunc_t func, void *arg1, void *arg2, struct cpu_info *ci)
 	uint64_t where;
-	while (xc->xc_headp != xc_tailp) {
+	while (xc->xc_headp != xc->xc_donep) {
 		cv_wait(&xc->xc_busy, &xc->xc_lock);
 	xc->xc_arg1 = arg1;
@@ -277,7 +275,7 @@ xc_lowpri(xcfunc_t func, void *arg1, void *arg2, struct cpu_info *ci)
 		ci->ci_data.cpu_xcall_pending = true;
-	KASSERT(xc_tailp < xc->xc_headp);
+	KASSERT(xc->xc_donep < xc->xc_headp);
 	where = xc->xc_headp;
@@ -302,7 +300,7 @@ xc_thread(void *cookie)
 	for (;;) {
 		while (!ci->ci_data.cpu_xcall_pending) {
-			if (xc->xc_headp == xc_tailp) {
+			if (xc->xc_headp == xc->xc_donep) {
 			cv_wait(&ci->ci_data.cpu_xcall, &xc->xc_lock);
@@ -312,7 +310,6 @@ xc_thread(void *cookie)
 		func = xc->xc_func;
 		arg1 = xc->xc_arg1;
 		arg2 = xc->xc_arg2;
-		xc_tailp++;
 		KASSERT(func != NULL);

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