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[I am not subscribed to this list, so if you want to answer, make sure to CC me]

In order to explore error branches, and to test the kernel's ability to cope
with failures, it is often necessary to hard-trigger such failures.

Here is an implementation [1] for fault(4), a driver that allows to trigger
failures in the kernel. A similar driver exists in Linux.

The fault_inject() function decides whether to return true or false, depending
on parameters configurable by userland via ioctls on /dev/fault. The caller of
this function should then error out depending on the return value. Typically:

		if (fault_inject())
			return NULL; // means failure
		return non_null; // means success

Several modes can be available, I have implemented one for now, the N-th mode:
every N-th call to fault_inject (N being configurable) will make it return

Several scopes are available: global (ie system-wide), or calling LWP.


 - mode=NTH scope=GLOBAL: every N-th call to fault_inject() in the whole kernel
   will return true, regardless of the LWP.
 - mode=NTH scope=LWP: every N-th call to fault_inject() made by the LWP that
   enabled the mode will return true. For the other LWPs, fault_inject() always
   returns false.

fault_inject() can be introduced in any place of interest. For now I added it
in pool_cache_get():

	if (flags & PR_NOWAIT) {
		if (fault_inject())
			return NULL;

Running ATF with kASan+LOCKDEBUG+fault with {N=32 scope=GLOBAL} already gives
an instant crash:

	kernel diagnostic assertion "radix_tree_empty_tree_p(&pmap->pm_pvtree)"
	failed: file ".../sys/arch/x86/x86/pmap.c"

Looks like radixtree.c doesn't handle allocation failures very well somewhere.

fault(4) seems like the kind of feature that would be useful for stress-testing
and fuzzing. As you can see in the diff, its code is extremely simple.



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