Subject: Re: ls -lsh
To: None <tech-userlevel@NetBSD.org>
From: der Mouse <mouse@Rodents.Montreal.QC.CA>
Date: 08/05/2004 15:37:52
> That looks confusing to me. Why '-s' should even be working with
> '-l' is beyond me.
Because the information -s provides is not otherwise available, even
> Also, doesnt -s report the number of blocks which are actually
> allocated to the file, or something?
Right, the amount of disk actually used.
> Something isn't right with the -s option. Assuming an 8k/1k
> filesystem, which my root fs seems to be: [...]
> Taking the size of /netbsd (4741076 bytes (whatever happened to a 2M
> kernel, BTW...)), and rounding up to the next blocksize... [...]
> As you can see, ls -s reports 4640 1k blocks, even though the size -
> -- rounded up and fully populated -- is 8 shy of that.
On an 8k/1k filesystem, that is exactly the amount of space used by one
indirect block, and one indrect block is exactly what a file of that
size would need.
Remember: amount of disk actually occupied. This bears only a
comparatively loose relationship to the file's st_size. (It doesn't
include the space taken up by the inode itself, though it arguably
As an example in the other direction, a file with holes will show a
much smaller number with -s than would be implied by the same file's -l
[Sparkle] 4> ls -l z
z not found
[Sparkle] 5> touch z
[Sparkle] 6> trunc z 104857600
[Sparkle] 7> ls -l z
-rw-r--r-- 1 mouse 104857600 Aug 5 15:41 z
[Sparkle] 8> ls -s z
[Sparkle] 9> ls -ls z
24 -rw-r--r-- 1 mouse 104857600 Aug 5 15:41 z
Those 24 sectors (three blocks - it's an 8k/1k filesystem) are for one
double-indirect block, one single-indirect block, and one data block.
(I'm not sure why it allocated a data block and the indirect blocks to
point to it; trunc just calls truncate(2). It's clearly not necessary;
if I grow it to 1048576000000 and then shrink it back to 104857600, I
end up with a file whose -s size is 0. But that's irrelevant for our
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