Subject: install/8447: Install instructions do not include details on sysinst/mac68k use
To: None <>
From: None <>
List: netbsd-bugs
Date: 09/19/1999 16:23:47
>Number:         8447
>Category:       install
>Synopsis:       Install instructions do not include details on sysinst/mac68k use
>Confidential:   no
>Severity:       non-critical
>Priority:       low
>Responsible:    install-manager (NetBSD system installation bug manager)
>State:          open
>Class:          doc-bug
>Submitter-Id:   net
>Arrival-Date:   Sun Sep 19 16:20:01 1999
>Originator:     Bob Nestor
>Release:        NetBSD-1.4.1
NetBSD pluto 1.4.1 NetBSD 1.4.1 (GENERICSBC) #1: Wed Sep 15 18:26:09 CDT 1999     bob@pluto:/usr/src/sys/arch/mac68k/compile/GENERICSBC mac68k

The instructions for installing NetBSD/mac68k do not include the
details of using sysinst/mac68k.

inspection (?)
Changes to incorporate the sysinst/mac68k instructions for NetBSD installation
on a 68k Macintosh.

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/common/contents
--- contents.orig	Sun Sep 19 09:40:07 1999
+++ contents	Sun Sep 19 14:03:36 1999
@@ -164,6 +164,19 @@
+.\"============================================ MAC68K INSTALLATION SUBTREE
+.if \n[mac68k] \{\
+.	Bl -tag -compact -width installation/
+.		It Pa instkernel/
+\*[MACHINE] boot and installation kernel; see installation section
+(Sysinst Method), below.
+.		It Pa misc/
+Miscellaneous \*[MACHINE] installation utilities; see
+installation section (Traditional Method), below.
+.	El
 .\"============================================ MACPPC INSTALLATION SUBTREE
 .if \n[macppc] \{\
@@ -1002,6 +1015,33 @@
 .Em 76 K archived
+The Installer and Mkfs utilities are not used if the installation is done
+using the
+.Ic sysinst
+method via booting an installation kernel.
+Mkfs creates a 4.3BSD old format file system. This is
+the only file system format understood by the Installer.
+The Installer (and probably Mkfs) is known to have problems with
+BSD file systems that are larger than 1-Gig or extend beyond the 1-Gig
+physical limit. Keep this in mind if doing a traditional
+installation with these utilities.
+The Booter is known to have problems booting from a NetBSD file system
+if the inode of the kernel file is to large.  For large disks it is
+advisable to have a small root partition and one or more usr-type partitions
+for other files.  This insures the inode of the kernel in the root file system
+will be small.
+The Booter is designed to work with 4.3BSD old file systems, but there
+are enough similarities between the old and new file system formats in the
+first few hundred blocks that the Booter can usually boot a Kernel from
+a 4.3BSD new file system format.  If you choose to use new file system formats,
+it is advisable to use a small root partition and one or more usr-type
+partitions for other files.
 These files are all binhexed, self-extracting archives. If you need them,
 the sources for these utilities are in the

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/common/main
--- main.orig	Sun Sep 19 11:00:39 1999
+++ main	Sun Sep 19 17:46:59 1999
@@ -461,7 +461,15 @@
 .so prep -----------------------------------------------
 .br_ne 7P
-.Ss "Installing the NetBSD System"
+.if r_mac68k \{\
+.Ss "Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method)"
+. ../common/sysinst -------------------------------------
+.br_ne 7P
+.Ss "Installing the NetBSD System (Traditional Method)"
+.if !r_mac68k .Ss "Installing the NetBSD System"
 .so install -----------------------------------------------
 .br_ne 7P

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/common/postinstall
--- postinstall.orig	Sun Sep 19 11:07:57 1999
+++ postinstall	Sun Sep 19 12:24:27 1999
@@ -101,11 +101,17 @@
 .Aq int ,
 along the lines of
 .ie r_pmax .Dl ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"
+.el \{\ r_mac68k .Dl ifconfig_sn0="inet netmask"
 .el .Dl ifconfig_de0="inet netmask"
 or, if you have
 .Ar No in Pa /etc/hosts :
 .ie r_pmax .Dl ifconfig_le0="inet netmask"
+.el \{\ r_mac68k .Dl ifconfig_sn0="inet netmsdk"
 .el .Dl ifconfig_de0="inet netmask"
 To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an
 .Pa /etc/resolv.conf
 file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run
@@ -162,6 +168,15 @@
 Don't forget to add
 .Pa /usr/X11R6/bin
 to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.
+.if r_mac68k \{\
+.(tag Em [Color_X]
+Some systems are capable of supporting a color X Server in either thousands
+or millions of colors.  The mac68k port does not support resolution
+switching at this time.  If you system is capable of running the color
+X Server it can be installed at this point and the Booter options can
+be modified to match the resolution depth.
 Installing 3rd party packages

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/common/sysinst
--- sysinst.orig	Sun Sep 19 13:38:24 1999
+++ sysinst	Sun Sep 19 16:59:08 1999
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-.\" $NetBSD: sysinst,v 1999/05/04 22:30:52 perry Exp $
+.\" $NetBSD: sysinst,v 1999/05/04 22:30:52 perry Exp $ Exit
 .\" Copyright (c) 1999 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
 .\" All rights reserved.
@@ -64,7 +64,32 @@
 Do not let this discourage you, the install program is not hard
 to use.
-.if !r_pmax  \{\ r_mac68k \{\
+.Em Possible SCSI, ADB, and CPU issues
+The SCSI driver used in the kernel is by default the ncrscsi code.
+It contains a recognized, but as yet unfixed bug that affects some
+disk drive/controller combinations, usually Quantum disks.  Under heavy
+load these systems may hang or corrupt the file system.  If this is a problem
+on your system you are advised to use the SBC variants of the Kernel
+and Installation Kernel.
+The ADB is supported in the kernel by direct manipulation of the
+hardware and does not rely on the Apple ROM code.  This offers a much
+wider range of support for various models of the 68k Macintosh, but
+has been known to cause problems on some systems.  If this is a problem
+on your system you should try an MRG variant of the Kernel.
+NetBSD/mac68k has known but unresolved problems running on the 68LC040
+processor.  This is the 68040 variant that does not contain the FPU
+instructions, thus the Kernel is forced to emulate these instructions
+in software.  This software emulation is not a problem with 68020 or
+68030 processors; running without an FPU co-processor on these systems
+is not a problem.
+.el \{\
+.if !r_pmax \{\
 .Em Possible Tn PCMCIA Em issues
@@ -121,6 +146,7 @@
 masks out IRQ 10, and the corresponding mask is 0xfbff.
 .Em General
@@ -157,20 +183,28 @@
 .ie r_alpha Two floppy disks.
 .ie r_i386 Two 1.44M 3.5" floppy disks. r_mac68k The MacOS Booter application and an Installation Kernel
 .el One 1.44M 3.5" floppy.
 .It_need r_mac68k \{\
+A Macintosh with a 68020 w/MMU, 68030 or 68RC040 processor. A
+CD-ROM drive, a harddisk and a minimum of 4Mb of memory installed.
+.el \{\
 .if r_i386 A PC with a 386 or newer processor.
 A CD-ROM drive (SCSI or ATAPI), a harddisk and a minimum of
 .if r_alpha 32Mb
 .if r_i386 4Mb
 .if r_pmax 8Mb
 of memory installed.
 The harddisk should have at least
 .if r_alpha 200
 .if r_i386 70
 .if r_pmax 200
+.if r_mac68k 100
 .Em n
 megabytes of
@@ -179,7 +213,9 @@
 is the number of megabytes of
 main memory in your system. If you wish to install
 the X window system as well, you will need at least
-60Mb more. r_mac68k 30Mb
+.el 60Mb
+ more.
 .if r_i386 \{\
@@ -204,6 +240,14 @@
 would type something like:
 .D1 Ic "dd if=.../boot1.fs bs=18k of=/dev/rfd0a
+.if r_mac68k \{\
+Creating the MacOS Booter and Installation Folder.  Create a Folder on
+your MacOS disk and copy the Booter Application and the Installation
+Kernel file into this Folder.  If you plan to use the MacOS Mkfs and
+Installer applications they may be placed in this Folder as well, although
+this isn't necessary.
 The Quick Installation
 .Bl -hyphen
@@ -215,6 +259,16 @@
 main menu.
 .el \{\ r_mac68k \{\
+Using the Booter application under MacOS, from the Boot Options pull-down
+menu select the Kernel location to be a MacOS file named netbsd.gz.
+From the Monitors Dialog pull-down menu select Change Monitor Depth to
+B&W.  Select Boot Now from the pull-down menu to start the NetBSD boot
+process.  If successful, the main menu for
+.Ic sysinst
+will be displayed.
+.el \{\
 Insert the
 .ie r_i386 first
 .ie r_alpha first
@@ -227,6 +281,7 @@
 .if r_i386 When prompted, insert the second boot floppy.
 The main menu will be displayed.
 If you wish, you can configure some network settings
 immediately by choosing the
@@ -272,6 +327,73 @@
 . r_mac68k \{\
+Prior to attempting to boot NetBSD/mac68k, please verify that all of
+the following are true: 
+.Bl -bullet  
+32-bit addressing is enabled[*] in the Memory control panel;
+All forms of virtual memory are disabled (the Memory control
+panel, RAM Doubler, or other software-based memory enhancement
+products); and
+Your system is in B\*&W mode (1-bit color or grayscale) as shown
+by the Monitors control panel. You may choose to have the
+Booter do this for you automatically by selecting the appropriate
+check box and radio button in the
+.Ic Monitors No dialog on the
+.Ic Options No menu .
+It is probably best to boot your machine with all extensions turned
+off[*]. You can do this by booting into MacOS with the
+.Tn SHIFT No key held
+down. You may have to restart your Macintosh for changes to take effect
+before proceeding.
+.(tag Em [*]Note:
+If your version of the Memory control panel does not have a 32-bit
+addressing mode radio button, this means that your system is already
+32-bit clean and is running in 32-bit addressing mode by default.  If the
+Booter complains that your are not in 32-bit mode, it may be necessary
+for you to press the "Use Defaults" button in the Memory control panel to
+restore 32-bit addressing.  You should probably reboot after doing so.
+If you have an older II-class system (including the II, IIx, IIcx,
+and SE/30), it is necessary to install Connectix's MODE32 to work around
+ROM issues which prevent you from enabling 32-bit addressing. Please see
+.if !dHTML .br
+.Lk the\ FAQ
+.if !dHTML .br
+for more information.
+Double-click on the NetBSD/mac68k Booter icon to start the application.
+.Ic Booting
+from the
+.Ic Options
+menu. Select the Kernel Location to be from MacOS with the filename
+corresponding to the name of the Installation Kernel you are using.
+Typically this will be netbsd.gz.
+If you haven't already put your Macintosh into B&W mode, select the
+.Ic Monitor Options No from the
+.Ic Options
+menu and check the box for B&W mode.
+Try booting
+by selecting
+.Ic Boot Now No from the
+.Ic Options No menu.
+If the system does not come up, send mail to
+describing your software, your hardware, and as complete a description of
+the problem as you can. As an alternative, try using the Tranditional
+Method of installation described in the next section.
+.el \{\
 .ie r_pmax  \{\
 Boot the system as desribed in the previous section.
@@ -348,6 +470,7 @@
 once it has booted.
@@ -357,11 +480,13 @@
 .Em Network configuration
 .if !r_pmax  \{\
+.if !r_mac68k \{\
 You can skip this section, as you will only get data
 from floppy in the first part of the install.
 If you will not use network operation during the installation,
 but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once
@@ -387,6 +512,20 @@
 and ask you for your selection. Depending on how many disks
 are found, you may get a different message. You should see
 disk names like r_mac68k \{\
+sd0 or sd1.  If you have IDE disks you may alos see wd0 listed.
+.Ic Sysinst
+next tries to figure out how the selected volume has been partitioned.
+It does this by reading the Apple Disk Partition Map from the disk.
+If the disk does not have a Partition Map,
+.Ic sysint
+will give you the option of writing one, but doing so will not make
+the disk a MacOS bootable volume.  You will have the option of
+creating HFS partitions that may be subsequentially initialized
+and used under MacOS though.
+.el \{\
 .ie r_pmax \{\
 .Li rz0
@@ -431,6 +570,7 @@
 that it does, reply affirmatively. Otherwise, the install
 program will automatically reserve space for bad144 tables.
 .Em Partitioning the disk.
 .Bl -bullet
@@ -445,6 +585,156 @@
 systems present on the disk, and you will be asked to confirm
 whether you want to overwrite these.
 .Pp r_mac68k \{\
+Definition of the
+The partition table of the
+part of a disk is called a disklabel.  A minimum of two
+partitions will be required, one for root and one for swap.  Up to
+eight partitions may be used by
+Up to 32 partitions may exist on the disk which may be a combination
+of MacOS HFS, Free, Scratch and
+type partitions, although only the first eight which meet the needs of
+will be seen and usable by
+Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.  Partition
+a is always the root partition, b is the swap partition, c is the
+entire disk.  Partitions d-h are available for other use.  Traditionally,
+g is the partition mounted on the /usr directory, but this is
+historical practice, not a fixed value.
+Editing the
+disklabel (and the underlying Apple Disk Partition Map).
+You will be presented with the current layout of the disk as seen by
+NetBSD, and given a change to change it. (Even though
+can only use the first eight qualified partitions, all partitions
+found on the disk will be displayed.) The partitions found on the disk
+will be shown in the top section of the display.  Each will be identified
+with the name assigned by
+NetBSD, the current size, offset, type, use and mount point. The partition
+currently being modified will be highlighted in inverse video.  The
+bottom part of the display will list the operations which may be
+performed on the selected (highlighted) partition. The options are:
+.Bl -hyphen
+Select next partition
+This highlights the next partition in the upper display list and makes it
+the current one selected for manipulation.
+Change selected partition
+This changes the type assigned to the partition.  A partition may be assigned
+for use as a
+Root, SWAP, Usr, or Root&Usr; it may be assigned for use as a MacOS HFS
+partition; a Scratch (for later reassignment); or a Free partition.  Free
+partitions which are physically adjacent to each other will be collapsed
+into a single Free partition.
+Set mount point for partition
+This designates the 
+file system mount point for the partition, and gets transferred into
+the /etc/fstab definition so
+knows where to mount the file system on subsequent boots.  The option
+only applies to
+Usr, Root&Usr or MacOS HFS partitions, although currently HFS access
+is not supported without optional software components.  A common set of
+predefined mount points (/usr /home /var /tmp or None) will be
+presented to you to assist you in defining the most commonly used, but
+you may enter you own names if you choose.  Selecting "None" will clear
+the mount point name and keep the partition from being defined in the
+resulting /etc/fstab file.
+Split selected partition
+This option divides the selected partition into two separate partitions
+if there is space available in the Disk Partition Map.  You will be
+prompted for the size of the first segment and the remaining portion
+will be allocated to the second segment.  The first segment will be
+designated as a Scratch type, and the second will be designated as a Free
+type. To clear a split, or remerge two adjacent partitions into a
+single one, change both to be Free types.
+.Ic Sysint
+will merge them and update the display.
+This is the primary option used to partition the disk since it allows
+you to sub-divide the selected partition into two partitions.  Changing
+the types associated with the resulting two parts, or splitting the
+second part further sub-divides the original partition.
+Page Up, Page Down
+These entries allow you to scroll the upper display if more than
+eight partitions currently exist on the disk.
+Fix selected partition
+This option reviews the partition's size and starting address and fixes
+the values if they overlap any adjacent partition. This is primarily a
+debugging option and shouldn't be necesary during a normal installation.
+However, some 3rd party disk formatters have been known to create
+bogus entries in the Apple Disk Partitin Map, and this option can aid
+is repairing these entries.
+This option completes the disk partitioning and returns you to the
+previous installation menu. At that point you will be given one last
+opportunity to bail out before committing the changes to the Disk
+Partition Map recorded on the disk.
+Recommended approach to partitioning
+The simplest method of approaching disk partitioning with
+.Ic sysinst
+is to convert everything that can be used for
+into a Free type partition.  This will allow
+.Ic sysint
+to collapse and merge all the available space.  Then cycle through the
+Select, Split, Select, Change, and Set Mount Point options for each of the
+partitions that are desired.  Since NetBSD/mac68k has a very specific
+mount order for partitions during system boot, it is best to create your
+partitions in the following order:  Root, SWAP, Usr where the partitions
+will be mounted in order on 'a', 'b', 'g', 'd', 'e', 'f', and 'h'.
+At least one Root or Root&Usr is required, and a SWAP parition is
+highly desirable. As a general rule you will need twice as much SWAP
+space as you have RAM, more if you plan on running X, Web applications
+or doing heavy development in a multi-user environment.  The Root
+partition, if it is separate from your Usr usually requires about
+If multiple Root partitions are defined, the second is usually by
+default, mounted on /altusr.  NetBSD/mac68k automatically mounts all
+Root partitions after the first as Usr type partitions, but it is best
+to be very specific about mount points and partition type and use.
+.el \{\
 If you want to use the entire disk for
 .Nx ,
 you can skip
@@ -506,7 +796,11 @@
 The first two use a set of default
 values (that you can change) suitable for a normal
 installation, possibly including X. The last option
-lets you specify everything yourself.
+lets you specify everything yourself. As a general rule you will need twice as much SWAP
+space as you have RAM, more if you plan on running X, Web applications
+or doing heavy development in a multi-user environment.  The Root
+partition, if it is separate from your Usr usually requires about
 You will be presented with the current layout of the
@@ -587,6 +881,7 @@
 is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't
 need to remember this name.
 .Em Preparing your hard disk
@@ -750,6 +1045,7 @@
 the floppies containing the split sets. This process
 will continue until all the sets have been loaded from floppy.
+.if !r_mac68k \{\
 .Em Installation from an unmounted filesystem
@@ -763,6 +1059,7 @@
 .Ic sysinst
 will then check if it
 can indeed access the sets at that location.
 .Em Installation from a local directory

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/mac68k/prep
--- prep.orig	Sun Sep 19 10:43:51 1999
+++ prep	Sun Sep 19 14:05:28 1999
@@ -1,4 +1,51 @@
 .\"	$NetBSD: prep,v 1999/06/21 15:25:49 perry Exp $	
+No matter which installation method you use, there is some planning
+and preparation that is required beforehand.  First and foremost,
+before beginning the installation process, make sure you have a
+reliable backup of any data on your hard disk that you wish to keep.
+Mistakes in partitioning your hard disk may lead to data loss.
+NetBSD/mac68k uses the same disk mapping schmeme as MacOS, the Apple
+Disk Partition Map.  This permits both systems to reside on the same
+disk, but introduces some installation problems unique to the Macintosh.
+There are very few, if any, reliable ways to reduce the size of an
+existing MacOS disk partition, so partitioning a disk that currently
+contains MacOS will almost always require a backup and reload step.
+If you are using the
+.Ic sysinst
+method of installation you will be able to
+do most, if not all, of your disk partitioning during the install
+process.  Partitioning the disk with
+.Ic sysinst
+will destroy any partition
+that is resized, deleted, converted, or designated for use by NetBSD.
+All space not planned to be used for MacOS HFS partitions may be used
+by NetBSD and can be sub-divided by the
+.Ic sysinst
+process.  This space
+may be defined within one or more existing disk partitions of any type,
+including HFS partitions that are no longer needed for MacOS. However,
+it is best if this space is physically contiguous on the disk as
+.Ic sysinst
+is not capable of merging non-contiguous disk partitions.  If you are
+using the
+.Ic sysinst
+method  and have sufficent disk space in one or more
+disk partitions you should skip forward to the Installation Section of
+this document.
+If you are using the traditional method of installation you must use a
+disk partitioning utility to designate the different partitions you
+will want in your final NetBSD configuation.  It is not necessary to
+create NetBSD (or AU/X) type partitions at this stage; the Mkfs utility
+can convert a partition of any type to one usable for NetBSD.
+If disk partitioning is required because you've selected the Traditional
+Method of installation, or because disk space needs to be freed up for
+use for the Sysinst Method of installtion, follow the directions in the
+remainder of this section.
 Find your favorite disk partitioning utility. Any formatter capable of
 partitioning a SCSI disk should work. Some of the ones that have been
 tried and seem to work are:

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/mac68k/whatis
--- whatis.orig	Sun Sep 19 09:33:05 1999
+++ whatis	Sun Sep 19 14:05:50 1999
@@ -11,6 +11,12 @@
 brings a number of improvements:
 .Bl -bullet
+A new
+.Ic sysinst
+screen based installation procedure that guides the user
+through the process of partitioning the disk, loading the NetBSD
+file systems, and configuring the system for use.
 A number of kernel changes enable support for several previously
 unsupported systems (such as the LC and Performa 470-series,
 570/580-series, and 630-series Macs).
@@ -27,6 +33,7 @@
 A number of bugs affecting II-series systems have been fixed.
 There is still a lot of work to be done and help is welcomed. Please jump in!
 .Nx \*V
 on mac68k is, as usual, also fully backward compatible with old

File /usr/src/distrib/notes/mac68k/xfer
--- xfer.orig	Sun Sep 19 10:12:25 1999
+++ xfer	Sun Sep 19 14:06:11 1999
@@ -1,15 +1,38 @@
 .\"	$NetBSD: xfer,v 1999/05/07 18:14:57 perry Exp $	
-Installation is currently only supported from the local Macintosh hard
-drive, from a CD-ROM, or from an AppleShare volume (however, you may upgrade
-a system from within
-; see the section on upgrading for more details).
-If you are installing from a local hard drive, this means that you'll need
-at least enough room for the largest file that you will have to install.
-This is the 10.2M base.tgz file. There has been talk of allowing an install
-from split files. If you have the time, desire, and knowledge, please feel
-free to add that functionality.
+There are currently two installation methods available for initial
+installation of NetBSD on the 68k Apple Macintosh.  Neither supports all
+installation media types at this time, so the one you select must be
+compatible with the media you have available on your system.
+.Bl -bullet
+The traditional method of installation uses MacOS hosted utilities
+to partition your disk, initialize the partitions for use by NetBSD,
+and load the file systems from archive files stored on the MacOS HFS
+filesystem.  This method requires that the Binary Distribution Sets
+reside on a local Macintosh hard drive, a CD-ROM, or an AppleShare
+.Ic sysinst
+method of installation uses an Installation Kernel which
+is a minimal NetBSD system with a memory resident set of utilities
+that are capable of partitioning the disk initializing the file systems,
+and loading them from the archive files.  Since the installation
+kernel does not currently support access to MacOS HFS file systems, this
+method requires that the Binary Distribution Sets be accessible from
+CD-ROM, remote NFS partition, or via FTP access.
+Traditional installation is currently supported from the local
+Macintosh hard drive, from a CD-ROM, or from an AppleShare volume
+(however, you may ugrade a system from within NetBSD; see the section
+on upgrading for more details).  If you are installing from a local hard
+drive, this means that you'll need at least enough room for the largest
+frile that you will have to install.  This is the 10.2M base.tgz file.
+There has been talk of allowing an install from split files.  If you have
+the time, desire, and knowledge, please feel free to add that
 If the install is being done from an AppleShare-mounted volume, the install
 utility must be in the same folder as the binary distribution sets.
@@ -41,3 +64,66 @@
 in binhexed, self-extracting archives as Mkfs.sea.hqx, Installer.sea.hqx,
 and Booter.sea.hqx, respectively. Extract them as you would any other
 Macintosh application.
+To install or upgrade NetBSD using NFS, you must do the following:
+.Bl -bullet
+Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wich to install into a directory
+on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on
+which yare are installing or upgrading NetBSD.  This will probably require
+modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its
+mount daemon (mountd).  (Both of these actions will probably require
+superuser privileges on the server.)
+You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if the
+server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which
+you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numberic
+IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine.  Finally, you
+need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.  The
+install program will ask you to provide this information to be able to
+access the sets.
+Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information
+mentioned above, you can start the actual installaion or upgrade
+To install or upgrade NetBSD by using FTP to get the distribution sets,
+you must do the following:
+.Bl -bullet
+The preparations for this installaiton/upgrade method are easy; all
+you need is to make sure that there's some FTP site from which you can retrieve
+the NetBSD distributions when you're about to install or upgrade.  You
+need to know the nemeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on
+a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing
+or upgrading NetBSD, you need ot know the numberic IP address
+of the router closest to the NetBSD machine.  Finally, you need to
+know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.  The install
+program will ask you to provide this information to be able to access
+the sets via ftp.
+One you have this information, you can proceed to the actual installation
+or upgrade.
+If you are upgrading NetBSD, you also have the option of installing NetBSD
+by putting the new distribution sets somewhere in your existing file
+system, and using them from there.  To do that, you must do the following:
+.Bl -bullet
+Place the distribution sets you wich to upgrade somewhere in your current
+file system tree.  Please note that the /dev on the installation kernel
+used for upgrades only knows about sd0, sd1, and sd2.  If you have more
+than three SCSI drives (not including CD-ROM drives), you should take care
+not to place the sets on the high numbered drives.
+At a bare minimum, you must upgrade the base and kern binary distribution,
+and so must put the base and kern sets somewhere in your file system. If
+you wich, you can do the other sets, as well, but you should NOT upgrade
+the etc distribution; it contains systems configuration files that you
+should review and update by hand.
+Once you have done this, you can proceed to the next step in the upgrade
+process, actually upgrading your system.