Subject: Announcing the release of NetBSD 2.0
To: None <email@example.com>
From: James Chacon <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: 12/09/2004 14:30:05
The NetBSD Project is pleased to announce that release 2.0 of the NetBSD
operating system is now available.
About NetBSD 2.0
NetBSD is widely known as the most portable operating system in the world. It
currently supports fifty four different system architectures, all from a
single source tree, and is always being ported to more.
NetBSD 2.0 continues our long tradition with major improvements in file system
and memory management performance, major security enhancements, and support
for many new platforms and peripherals.
The addition of a native threads implementation for all platforms
and symmetrical multiprocessing (SMP) on i386 and other popular
platforms were long-standing goals for NetBSD 2.0. Both of these
goals have now been met -- SMP support has been added for i386,
Sparc, and PowerPC, and the SMP support on Alpha and Vax has been
Please read below for more achievements in NetBSD 2.0!
Complete source and binaries for NetBSD 2.0 are available for download at
many sites around the world. A list of download sites providing FTP, AnonCVS,
SUP, and other services is provided at the end of this announcement; the
latest list of available download sites may also be found at:
We encourage users who wish to install via a CD-ROM ISO image to
download via BitTorrent by using the torrent files supplied in the ISO image
area. This is the first major release of NetBSD to add BitTorrent to the
distribution mechanisms and its use is strongly encouraged to help keep
A list of hashes for the NetBSD 2.0 distribution has been signed with
the well-connected PGP key for the NetBSD Security-Offficer:
The NetBSD operating system is a full-featured, open source, UNIX-like
operating system descended from the Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2),
4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2. NetBSD runs on 54 different system
architectures featuring 17 machine architectures across 17 distinct CPU
families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 2.0 release contains
complete binary releases for 48 different machine types.
NetBSD is a highly integrated system. In addition to its highly portable,
high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities,
compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and
numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code. The NetBSD
Packages Collection contains over 5000 packages and binary package releases
for a number of platforms are currently in progress.
More information on the goals of the NetBSD Project can be procured from the
NetBSD web site at:
NetBSD is free. All of the code is under non-restrictive licenses, and may be
used without paying royalties to anyone. Free support services are available
via our mailing lists and web site. Commercial support is available from a
variety of sources; some are listed at:
More extensive information on NetBSD is available from the NetBSD web site:
NetBSD is the work of a diverse group of people spread around the world. The
`Net' in our name is a tribute to the Internet, which enables us to
communicate and share code, and without which the project would not exist.
Major Changes Between 1.6 and 2.0
The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES and CHANGES-2.0
files in the top level directory of the NetBSD 2.0 release tree.
Some highlights include:
* Ports to new platforms including: amd64, evbsh5, and xen.
* Native thread support has been added, based on Scheduler Activations.
Applications which support native threads can now take full advantage of
the high-performance NetBSD POSIX threads implementation.
* The i386 port now supports SMP and has a new ACPI and power management
framework which takes advantage of Intel's ACPI implementation.
* The amd64 port now supports SMP and hardware support has been enhanced.
* The macppc port now supports SMP and hardware support for newer G4 models
has been added.
* SMP support has been added to the sparc port.
* Improvements have been made to NetBSD's Linux emulation to support the
latest Sun JDK/JRE for Linux. Testing has shown that it now runs as well
as it does on Linux natively.
* Kernel events notification framework - kqueue. kqueue(2) provides a
stateful and efficient event notification framework. Currently supported
events include socket, file, directory, fifo, pipe, tty and device changes,
and monitoring of processes and signals. kqueue is supported by all
writable filesystems in the NetBSD tree (with the exception of Coda) and
all device drivers supporting poll(2).
* NetBSD 2.0 enforces non-executable mappings on many platforms. This means
that the process stack and heap mappings are non-executable by default,
making exploitation of potential buffer overflows harder. NetBSD 2.0
supports PROT_EXEC permission via mmap(2) for all platforms where the
hardware differentiates execute access from data access, though not
necessarily with single-page granularity. When the hardware has a larger
granularity, the rule is that if any page in the larger unit is
executable, then the entire larger unit is executable, otherwise the
entire larger unit is not executable.
* New generic i2c framework, supporting bit bang mode and intelligent
* sysctl(9) was switched from a static binding to a dynamic implementation.
* A new driver, satalink(4), has been added, and SATA support from other
drivers has been moved into this along with the addition of support for
* Innumerable fixes and enhancements have been made to our
existing device drivers, and several new device drivers have
* ipf(8) has been upgraded to version 4.1.3.
* tcp(4) now implements path MTU discovery blackhole detection (i.e., it
will turn off path MTU discovery if the connection is losing).
* Socket buffer insertion is now O(C). This can provide a substantial
performance boost to some applications which use large socket buffers.
* wi(4) has support for Host-AP mode, allowing Intersil Prism2/2.5/3-based
boards to be used to make an 802.11 Access Point.
* Support for ipf(8) has been added to bridge(4) and brconfig(8).
* Port allocation has been changed from linked list to a hash table for
* FreeBSD's UFS2 has been ported to NetBSD. UFS2 is an extension to FFS,
adding 64 bit block pointers and support for extended file storage. Among
other enhancements, UFS2 allows for file systems larger than 1Terabyte.
* The cryptographic disk driver (cgd(4)) can be used to encrypt disks or
partitions, using some strong encryption algorithms, like
AES (Rijndael) and Blowfish. cgd can also be configured to encrypt swap.
* The systrace framework has been added to the system. systrace(4) monitors
and controls application access to the system by enforcing access
policies for system calls. The systrace(1) utility might be used to
trace an untrusted application's access to the system. In addition, it
can be used to protect the system from software bugs (such as buffer
overflows) by constraining a daemon's access to the system. The privilege
elevation feature of systrace can be used to obviate the need to run
large, untrusted programs as root when only one or two system calls
require the elevated privilege.
* Verified Exec support has been added in this release. Verified Exec
verifies a cryptographic hash before allowing execution of binaries and
scripts. This can be used to prevent a system from running binaries or
scripts which have been illegally modified or installed. In addition,
Verified Exec can also be used to limit the use of script interpreters
to authorized scripts only and disallow interactive use.
System administration and user tools
* The system is now fully dynamically linked (including /bin and /sbin).
* System recovery tools are provided in /rescue. These are space-optimized
statically linked versions of various tools required to repair a
system (including /rescue/init and /rescue/sh).
* Switched from the GPL versions to non-GPL versions of various tools
including gzip(1) and awk(1).
* NetBSD 2.0 supports a new toolchain based on gcc 3.3.3 and binutils 2.14.
gcc 3.3.3 adds support for a number of CPU targets and greatly improved
support for i386 and other targets. The support for new platforms in
gcc 3.3.3 has enabled the porting of NetBSD to even more architectures.
* NetBSD 2.0 ships with X11 binaries based on XFree86 4.4.0 on all ports
that support the X Window System.
* Updates of most third party packages that are shipped in the base system
to the following stable releases:
o bind 8.3.7
o binutils 2.14
o cvs 1.11.17
o diffutils 2.8.1
o file 4.08
o gcc 3.3.3
o gdb 5.3
o grep 2.5.1
o groff 1.19
o less 381
o openssl 0.9.7d
o postfix 2.0.19
o sendmail 8.12.11
o tcpdump 3.7.1
o texinfo 4.6
* Many new packages in the pkgsrc system, including the latest GNOME,
KDE and Xfce open source desktops, OpenOffice.org, Perl, Apache and
many more. A number of new platforms are supported, including Darwin,
FreeBSD, IRIX, Linux, OpenBSD and Solaris. Support for various other
platforms (among them AIX, BSD/OS and HP-UX) is currently being worked
on thanks to our new, portable bootstrap kit which makes it much
simpler to port pkgsrc support to new operating systems. At the time
of writing, there are over 5000 third party packages available in pkgsrc.
And of course there have also been innumerable bug fixes and other
Please note that at the moment, sysinst will not assist you in installing
pre-built third-party binary packages or the pkgsrc system itself. See the
NetBSD packages collection documentation:
The NetBSD Foundation would like to thank all those who have contributed code,
hardware, documentation, funds, colocation for our servers, web pages and
other documentation, release engineering, and other resources over the years.
More information on the people who make NetBSD happen is available at:
We would like to especially thank the University of California at Berkeley and
the GNU Project for particularly large subsets of code that we use. We would
also like to thank the Internet Software Consortium and the Helsinki
University of Technology for current colocation services.
About the NetBSD Foundation
The NetBSD Foundation was chartered in 1995, with the task of overseeing core
NetBSD project services, promoting the project within industry and the open
source community, and holding intellectual property rights on much of the
NetBSD code base. Day-to-day operations of the project are handled by
As a non-profit organisation with no commercial backing, The NetBSD
Foundation depends on donations from its users, and we would like to ask
you to consider making a donation to the NetBSD Foundation in support of
continuing production of our fine operating system. Your generous
donation would be particularly welcome at this point in time, since the
release engineering proccess for NetBSD 2.0 was unfortunately set back
by hardware failures on the build machines, necessitating the immediate
replacement of the equipment.
Donations can be done via PayPal (paypal@NetBSD.org) and are fully
tax-deductible in the US. If you would prefer not to use PayPal, or
would like to make other arrangements, please contact
NetBSD mirror sites
Please use a mirror site close to you.
* FTP - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#ftp
* ISO images - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#iso
* Anonymous CVS - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#anoncvs
* BitTorrent - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#bittorrent
* SUP - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#sup
* CVSup - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#cvsup
* rsync - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#rsync
* AFS - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#afs
* NFS - http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/#nfs
Please also note our list of CD-ROM vendors.